The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire

Everyone knows that the current capital of Japan – Tokyo. However, not everyone knows how it was called the first capital. We propose to make a little trip into the depths of history and find out what was the Rising Sun Country centuries ago.
The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire
Nara (Japan) on the world map – just a small point. However, its value once it was very large. Today, a small Japanese town, located in the Kansai region. The number of its population is about 365 thousand. People. This is not just a city. Nara – the first capital of Japan. Its earlier name-Hэydze shipboard. The first capital of Japan was built, like many in this country in the early stages of statehood, the image of Chang’an, capital of China at that time. The civilization of ancient China greatly influenced the formation of religion, literature and the state of the rising sun. Many took over her Japan. On the world map, these states are in the neighborhood, so do not be surprised this.

Golden Buddha is a symbol of Nara. The first capital of Japan was founded in the year 710. However, the presence in Nara large number of Buddhist temples, and huge impact on the life of the city was the Buddhist monks threat to the government. So he decided to find a new capital. At 784, she was moved at some time in Nagaoka, and then in Kyoto.
The story of the Japanese capital
The story of the Japanese capital rather confusing and complicated thing. Official sources said the time period when a particular city was the capital. However, despite this fact, it was repeatedly postponed. Even in the era of Nara it was moved to 740-44 years. Cooney, a shipboard (today Quo). In 745, the capital was another city – Nanyva-shipboard (present Osaka). Then again became the capital of Nara.

Nara period
So is the era in Japanese history when it was the capital city of Nara (710 to 794 per year). Features it – express kitaizatsii society, flourishing culture, including poetry and Buddhism and the first Japanese historical chronicles.
By the 8th century, the Japanese Yamato called their country. However, the 702 first came to the place name “Nihon”. Avati visited China, but Mahyto, the Japanese ambassador, so he called his country. Before taking Taiho (basic legal code) in 701 was the custom, after the death of Emperor move the state capital to a new location. In the 8th century began reforming Japanese society. It was created a centralized government that has effective administrative apparatus. As a result, the entire territory was united Japan. This required the creation of a large settler center. The first capital in 710 and became the center of it.
Nara was the quadrangle, which was divided into left and right “capital.” In addition, the city was divided into dozens of small areas. Government buildings were concentrated in the northern part of Nara. Here is the palace of the emperor. The central thoroughfare of the city, known as the “Red Street Phoenix,” extending from it. She came to the main gate, located in the south.

The population of Japan during the Nara
Nara period in yaponystyke seen as a continuation of the reforms started in the 7th century. They were related to the borrowing experience of civilized China. The population of the state, according to Russian researchers estimate amounted to about 6 million people. Empire of Japan at this time was a centralized state. The population was divided into 2 categories: remyn (good people) and sэmmyn (sneaky people). Officials belonged to the first category (they were the elite of Japan at the time), and the freemen and artisans who depend on the court. In sэmmyn guards were graves, enslaved offenders and their families that are privately owned slaves. All officials, according to legal codes of Japan 7th century, divided into provincial and metropolitan. Their position was fixed system 9 ranks. In turn, they split up into junior and senior rank. The more high place in this system took official, the higher salary he had more privileges and benefits.
state Economy
The economy of this period was the state-planned. The network of roads leading to the capital was laid for a more efficient tax collection. Thanks to the active development began in Japan. At the court to mint silver and copper coins. In the year 708, the first Japanese coins. Money is used mainly to pay salaries to employees and officials. Most of the Japanese was outside the scope of commodity-money circulation. 90% of residents were free peasants. Natural character wore economy.
Naturalization and flourishing Buddhist Art

An important feature of this era is the naturalization of Buddhism. This policy contributed to this emperor. He oblychchyasto turned to Buddhism, which was declared a “defender” of the country, in other words, defined as the state religion. Nara period – this era of prosperity Arts, which experienced while Japanese Empire. To this day most of the works of art preserved in Sesoyne (Imperial Repository), located in the temple Toda-ji temple. Among them we can find items from India and Persia, which suggests that the ancient Japanese involved in international trade.

The time when Nara was the center of the state, was remarkable period in the history of Japan in terms of the progress of art and architecture. The reason for this was the large international exchanges with Korea and China. The basis of culture and politics in Japan at the same time was already sufficiently formed to have its characteristic features. Many shrines and temples that time and today you can see the first capital and returned back 1300 years, to feel the atmosphere of those years.
The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire
The population in the heyday of Nara
It is believed that in the heyday of Nara was many cities. It lived about 100 thousand people. In Nara was the residence Schemu (Sam), the 45th emperor of Japan. It was the first commoner took a wife. In addition, the first capital of Japan was a political and administrative center with many officials. It was here, according to the ancient myth, descended from heaven riding a deer Jimmy, the first emperor of Japan. Therefore, in the country, and especially in its first capital, is sacred animals deer that are designed to protect the city and the state.
The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire
The fate of Nara after moving the capital
After Nara ceased to be the capital, its development for some time stopped. Many architectural monuments of the city during the civil wars that frequently occur in Japan and lasted a long time, have been destroyed, as most buildings of that time built of wood. During farmland were used land first capital. Once majestic city was in full decline. However, influential churches through the centuries were against it. Again Nara was the capital of shrines and temples in Japan.
Restoration of the city
The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire
Restore it was not so easy – many monuments were destroyed. In order to play Suzakumon, majestic gate red phoenix, in the main temple Nara, lacked even basic information. There were well aware of how they look. Therefore, reconstruction was performed based on a model made in excavations, comparison and analysis of the distance between the columns and fragments that are able to detect. In 1998, the gate was reconstructed. Today this magnificent building height of 25 m. They are built of concrete and cypress. During the reconstruction of seismological take into account the situation in the region and used special technologies that allow the gate to stand another 500 years.
Gardens Nara
The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire
Based on excavations able to reconstruct and gardens, restoring the old look of the area. In Nara over a thousand years banned cutting down forests that are sacred mountain Kasuhayama. And today they are considered pristine. They still growing Japanese cedars, and these forests are the habitat of many rare animals. They are themselves natural monument. It is very unusual that these ancient forests are in close proximity to the city. They are an important place for tourist excursions. These forests are free to attend daily. There grows 175 species of trees, 598 species of flowers and 60 species of birds and 1180 species of insects.
Nara today
The first capital of Japan. History of the Great Japanese Empire
The ancient capital of Nara favorite place today the Japanese tourism. Tours here for graduation classes of schools and kindergarten groups are especially popular. For foreign travelers, there are tours designed typically for one day. If you plan to stay here for a longer time, you should take care of booking the hotel because of this city is not very much. The former capital of Japan – one of the best places where you can admire the spring cherry blossoms and autumn leaves beauty watch mymydzhy.

History of trigonometry: emergence and development

Trigonometry history is inextricably linked to astronomy, because for solving this ancient science, scientists began to explore the value of different variables in a triangle.
Today trigonometry is mykrorazdelom mathematics that studies the relationship between the values of angles and lengths of the sides of triangles, and involved analysis of algebraic identities trigonometric functions.
History of trigonometry: emergence and development
The term “trigonometry”
The term, which gave its name to this branch of mathematics, was first discovered in the title of the book authored by a German scientist and mathematician Pytyskusa in 1505. The word “trigonometry” is of Greek origin and means “Measure Triangle”. To be more precise, it is not a literal terms of figures, but of its solution, ie determining values of unknown elements using known.

General information about trigonometry
Trigonometry history began more than two millennia ago. First, its appearance was due to the need to clarify the relationships of angles and sides of a triangle. While studies have shown that the mathematical expression of these relationships requires a special trigonometric functions that are initially processed as numeric table.
For many allied sciences with mathematics impetus to the development of trigonometry was just a story. Origin measurements of angles (degrees) associated with the research scholars of ancient Babylon, is based on a system shestydesyatyrychnuyu calculation, which gave early modern desyatirichnoy, used in many applied sciences.

It is assumed that initially existed as trigonometry of astronomy. Then it was used in architecture. And eventually there was the feasibility of this science in various fields of human activity. In particular, astronomy, sea and air navigation, acoustics, optics, electronics, architecture and others.
Trigonometry at early age
Guided by scientific data on surviving relic, the researchers concluded that the origins of trigonometry associated with the works of Greek astronomer Hipparchus, who first thought on finding ways of solving triangles (spherical). His works belong to the 2nd century BC.
History of trigonometry: origin and development is also one of the most important achievements of that time is to determine the ratio of legs and the hypotenuse in a right triangle, which was later called the Pythagorean theorem.
The history of trigonometry in ancient Greek astronomer associated with the name Ptolemy – geocentric system of the world the author that prevailed before Copernicus.
Greek astronomers were not aware of sine, cosine and tangent. They used tables that allow to find the chord value range using styahayetsya arc. The units were to measure the chord degrees, minutes and seconds. One degree was equal to sixty of the radius.
Also study the ancient Greeks promoted the development of spherical trigonometry. In particular, Euclid in his “Principia” leads theorem on regularity volume ratio of balls of different diameters. His work in this area were a push to develop more and allied disciplines. In particular, the technology of astronomical instruments, theory of map projections, the system of celestial coordinates and t. D.

Ages: the study of Indian scientists
Significant progress achieved medieval Indian astronomers. Death of ancient science in the IV century led to the displacement of the center of mathematics in India.
History of trigonometry as a separate section of mathematical education began in the Middle Ages. That’s when the scientists replaced chord sinuses. This discovery allowed to enter the functions related research sides and angles of a right triangle. That was then beginning vidosoblyuvatysya trigonometry from astronomy, becoming a branch of mathematics.
The first table of sines were Aryabhaty, they were held in 3 of 4 of 5 on. Later versions were detailed tables: in particular, Bhaskara gave a table of sines by 1 on.
History of trigonometry: the emergence and development of the first specialized treatise on trigonometry appeared in X-XI century. The author was his Central Asian scholar al-Biruni. In his main work “Canon Mas’uda” (Book III) by medieval further deepened in trigonometry, resulting sine table (in increments of 15 ‘) and a table of tangents (in increments of 1 °).
The history of trigonometry in Europe
After translation of Arabic treatises in Latin (XII-XIII) the majority of the ideas of Indian and Persian scientists were borrowed European science. The first mention of trigonometry in Europe belong to the XII century.
According to researchers, history of trigonometry in Europe with the name Richard Uollynhfordskoho Englishman who was the author of the work “Four treatise on the direct and inverse chords.” It was the first work of its work, which is entirely devoted to trigonometry. By the XV century, many authors mention in his writings of trigonometric functions.

History of trigonometry: New Era
In modern times, most scientists became aware of the critical importance of trigonometry not only in astronomy and astrology, but in other areas of life. This is, first of all, artillery, optics and navigation in the distant sea expeditions. Therefore, in the second half of the XVI century, the topic of interest of many prominent people of that time, including Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, François Viète. Copernicus took trigonometry several chapters of his treatise “On the rotation of the Heavenly Spheres” (1543). Later, in the 60 years of the XVI century, Retyk – student Copernicus – gives in his book “The optical part of astronomy” pyatnadtsatyznachnye trigonometric tables.
History of trigonometry: the emergence and development François Viète which were introduced in “Mathematical canon” (1579) provides a thorough and systematic, albeit unsubstantiated, characteristic plane and spherical trigonometry. But Albrecht Dürer was the same, thanks to whom the world was sinusoid.
The merits of Leonhard Euler
Providing modern trigonometry content and type of merit was Leonhard Euler. His treatise “Introduction to endless analysis” (1748) contains a definition of “trigonometric functions”, which is equivalent to today. Thus, the scientist could determine the inverse function. But that’s not all.
Definition of trigonometric functions on the entire real line was made possible by Euler’s research not only permissible negative angles, but the angles of over 360 °. He was first in his works proved that cosine and tangent right angle negative. Decomposition of entire stages cosine and sine was also the merit of the scientist. The general theory of trigonometric series and study the convergence of series were obtained objects of research Euler. However, working on issues related tasks, he made many discoveries in this area. It was through his work continued history of trigonometry. Briefly in his writings he touched on spherical trigonometry.

Applications of trigonometry
Trigonometry is not related to applied sciences, real everyday problem it is rarely used. However, this fact does not diminish its significance. It is important, for example, the technique of triangulation that allows astronomers to accurately measure the distance to stars minded and control the satellite navigation system.
Also trigonometry is used in navigation, music theory, acoustics, optics, analysis of financial markets, electronics, probability theory, statistics, biology, medicine (such as deciphering ultrasound ultrasound and computed tomography), pharmaceutics, chemistry, number theory, seysmolohyyy , meteorology, oceanography, cartography, many branches of physics, topography and geodesy, architecture, phonetics, economics, electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, computer graphics, and so krystallohrafyyy. d. The history of trigonometry and its role in the study of natural sciences and mathematics and studied day. Perhaps in the future areas of application will be more.
The history of the origin of basic concepts
The history of development of trigonometry and has more than one century. The introduction of the concepts that form the basis of this section of mathematical science, nor was momentary.
History of trigonometry: the emergence and development Thus, the term “sine” has a very long history. Mention of various segments of relationship triangles, circles found in scientific works, dating from the III century BC. The works of the great ancient scientists like Euclid, Archimedes, Apollo Perhskyy already containing the first study of these relationships. New discoveries demanded some terminological clarification. Thus, the Indian scientist Ariabhata gives chord name ‘Jiva’, which means “bow string”. When Arab mathematical texts were translated into Latin, the term was replaced by a value close sinuses (ie “bend”).
The word “cosine” appeared much later. This term is a shortened version of the Latin phrase “extra sine”.
The emergence of tangents associated with decoding the problem of determining the length of the shadow. The term “tangent” entered in the X century Arab mathematician Abul-Wafa, was the first table to determine tangents and kotanhensov. But European scientists were unaware of these developments. German mathematician and astronomer Rehymontan rediscovered these concepts in 1467 The proof of the theorem of tangents – to his credit. But the term is translated as “concerning”.